A census of the goat (Capra hircus) population on the island of Montecristo has been completed. This population is the only one to live wild in Italy since ancient times, with morphological features very similar to those of the populations of Crete, the Aegean Islands and Asian populations. Monitoring, carried out using various methods, enables estimates to be made of the minimum population number, the composition of the population and any changes that have taken place. Counting is undertaken from vantage points and along established routes, with several sighting sessions. Preliminary data analysis highlighted the presence of a minimum of 177 animals. Analysis is underway to estimate the average population number.